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 system K then corresponds to the embankment, and a co-ordinate system K' to the train. An event, wherever it may have taken place, would be fixed in space with respect to K by the three perpendiculars x, y, z on the co-ordinate planes, and with regard to time by a time value t. Relative to K1, the same event would be fixed in respect of space and time by corresponding values x1, y1, z1, t1, which of course are not identical with x, y, z, t. It has already been set forth in detail how these magnitudes are to be regarded as results of physical measurements. Obviously our problem can be exactly formulated in the following manner. What are the values x1, y1, z1, t1, of an event with respect to K1, when the magnitudes x, y, z, t, of the same event with respect to K are given ? The relations must be so chosen that the law of the transmission of light in vacuo is satisfied for one and the same ray of light (and of course for every ray) with respect to K and K1. For the relative orientation in space of the co-ordinate systems indicated in the diagram (Fig. 2), this problem is solved by means of the equations : eq. 1: file eq01.gif y1 = y z1 = z eq. 2: file eq02.gif This system of equations is known as the " Lorentz transformation." * If in place of the law of transmission of light we had taken as our basis the tacit assumptions of the older mechanics as to the absolute character of times and lengths, then instead of the above we should have obtained the following equations: x1 = x - vt y1 = y z1 = z t1 = t This system of equations is often termed the " Galilei transformation." The Galilei transformation can be obtained from the Lorentz transformation by substituting an infinitely large value for the velocity of light c in the latter transformation. Aided by the following illustration, we can readily see that, in accordance with the Lorentz transformation, the law of the transmission of light in vacuo is satisfied both for the reference-body K and for the reference-body K1. A light-signal is sent along the positive x-axis, and this light-stimulus advances in accordance with the equation x = ct, i.e. with the velocity c. According to the equations of the Lorentz transformation, this simple relation between x and t involves a relation between x1 and t1. In point of fact, if we substitute for x the value ct in the first and fourth equations of the Lorentz transformation, we obtain: eq. 3: file eq03.gif eq. 4: file eq04.gif from which, by division, the expression x1 = ct1 immediately follows. If referred to the system K1, the propagation of light takes place according to this equation. We thus see that the velocity of transmission relative to the reference-body K1 is also equal to c. The same result is obtained for rays of light advancing in any other direction whatsoever. Of cause this is not surprising, since the equations of the Lorentz transformation were derived conformably to this point of view. Notes *) A simple derivation of the Lorentz transformation is given in Appendix I. THE BEHAVIOUR OF MEASURING-RODS AND CLOCKS IN MOTION Place a metre-rod in the x1-axis of K1 in such a manner that one end (the beginning) coincides with the point x1=0 whilst the other end (the end of the rod) coincides with the point x1=I. What is the length of the metre-rod relatively to the system K? In order to learn this, we need only ask where the beginning of the rod and the end of the rod lie with respect to K at a particular time t of the system K. By means of the first equation of the Lorentz transformation the values of these two points at the time t = 0 can be shown to be eq. 05a: file eq05a.gif eq. 05b: file eq05b.gif =10=

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