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page 4 of 41



**B It is not necessary here to investigate further the significance
of the expression "coincidence in space." This conception is
sufficiently obvious to ensure that differences of opinion are
scarcely likely to arise as to its applicability in practice.

*** A refinement and modification of these views does not become
necessary until we come to deal with the general theory of relativity,
treated in the second part of this book.



SPACE AND TIME IN CLASSICAL MECHANICS


The purpose of mechanics is to describe how bodies change their
position in space with "time." I should load my conscience with grave
sins against the sacred spirit of lucidity were I to formulate the
aims of mechanics in this way, without serious reflection and detailed
explanations. Let us proceed to disclose these sins.

It is not clear what is to be understood here by "position" and
"space." I stand at the window of a railway carriage which is
travelling uniformly, and drop a stone on the embankment, without
throwing it. Then, disregarding the influence of the air resistance, I
see the stone descend in a straight line. A pedestrian who observes
the misdeed from the footpath notices that the stone falls to earth in
a parabolic curve. I now ask: Do the "positions" traversed by the
stone lie "in reality" on a straight line or on a parabola? Moreover,
what is meant here by motion "in space" ? From the considerations of
the previous section the answer is self-evident. In the first place we
entirely shun the vague word "space," of which, we must honestly
acknowledge, we cannot form the slightest conception, and we replace
it by "motion relative to a practically rigid body of reference." The
positions relative to the body of reference (railway carriage or
embankment) have already been defined in detail in the preceding
section. If instead of " body of reference " we insert " system of
co-ordinates," which is a useful idea for mathematical description, we
are in a position to say : The stone traverses a straight line
relative to a system of co-ordinates rigidly attached to the carriage,
but relative to a system of co-ordinates rigidly attached to the
ground (embankment) it describes a parabola. With the aid of this
example it is clearly seen that there is no such thing as an
independently existing trajectory (lit. "path-curve"*), but only
a trajectory relative to a particular body of reference.

In order to have a complete description of the motion, we must specify
how the body alters its position with time ; i.e. for every point on
the trajectory it must be stated at what time the body is situated
there. These data must be supplemented by such a definition of time
that, in virtue of this definition, these time-values can be regarded
essentially as magnitudes (results of measurements) capable of
observation. If we take our stand on the ground of classical
mechanics, we can satisfy this requirement for our illustration in the
following manner. We imagine two clocks of identical construction ;
the man at the railway-carriage window is holding one of them, and the
man on the footpath the other. Each of the observers determines the
position on his own reference-body occupied by the stone at each tick
of the clock he is holding in his hand. In this connection we have not
taken account of the inaccuracy involved by the finiteness of the
velocity of propagation of light. With this and with a second
difficulty prevailing here we shall have to deal in detail later.


  Notes

*) That is, a curve along which the body moves.



THE GALILEIAN SYSTEM OF CO-ORDINATES


As is well known, the fundamental law of the mechanics of
Galilei-Newton, which is known as the law of inertia, can be stated
thus: A body removed sufficiently far from other bodies continues in a
state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line. This law not
only says something about the motion of the bodies, but it also
indicates the reference-bodies or systems of coordinates, permissible
in mechanics, which can be used in mechanical description. The visible
fixed stars are bodies for which the law of inertia certainly holds to
a high degree of approximation. Now if we use a system of co-ordinates
which is rigidly attached to the earth, then, relative to this system,
every fixed star describes a circle of immense radius in the course of
an astronomical day, a result which is opposed to the statement of the
law of inertia. So that if we adhere to this law we must refer these
motions only to systems of coordinates relative to which the fixed
stars do not move in a circle. A system of co-ordinates of which the
state of motion is such that the law of inertia holds relative to it
is called a " Galileian system of co-ordinates." The laws of the
mechanics of Galflei-Newton can be regarded as valid only for a
Galileian system of co-ordinates.



THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY
(IN THE RESTRICTED SENSE)


In order to attain the greatest possible clearness, let us return to
our example of the railway carriage supposed to be travelling
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