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COCOA AND CHOCOLATE

_Their History from Plantation to Consumer_



By

ARTHUR W. KNAPP
B. Sc. (B'ham.), F.I.C., B. Sc. (Lond.) Member of the Society of
Public Analysts; Member of the Society of Chemical Industry; Fellow
of the Institute of Hygiene. Research Chemist to Messrs. Cadbury
Bros., Ltd.


LONDON
CHAPMAN AND HALL, LTD.
1920





PREFACE


Although there are several excellent scientific works dealing in a
detailed manner with the cacao bean and its products from the various
view points of the technician, there is no comprehensive modern work
written for the general reader. Until that appears, I offer this little
book, which attempts to cover lightly but accurately the whole ground,
including the history of cacao, its cultivation and manufacture. This is
a small book in which to treat of so large a subject, and to avoid
prolixity I have had to generalise. This is a dangerous practice, for
what is gained in brevity is too often lost in accuracy: brevity may be
always the soul of wit, it is rarely the body of truth. The expert will
find that I have considered him in that I have given attention to recent
developments, and if I have talked of the methods peculiar to one place
as though they applied to the whole world, I ask him to consider me by
supplying the inevitable variations and exceptions himself.

The book, though short, has taken me a long time to write, having been
written in the brief breathing spaces of a busy life, and it would never
have been completed but for the encouragement I received from Messrs.
Cadbury Bros., Ltd., who aided me in every possible way. I am
particularly indebted to the present Lord Mayor of Birmingham, Mr. W.A.
Cadbury, for advice and criticism, and to Mr. Walter Barrow for reading
the proofs. The members of the staff to whom I am indebted are Mr. W.
Pickard, Mr. E.J. Organ, Mr. T.B. Rogers; also Mr. A. Hackett, for whom
the diagrams in the manufacturing section were originally made by Mr.
J.W. Richards. I am grateful to Messrs. J.S. Fry and Sons, Limited, for
information and photographs. In one or two cases I do not know whom to
thank for the photographs, which have been culled from many sources. I
have much pleasure in thanking the following: Mr. R. Whymper for a large
number of Trinidad photos; the Director of the Imperial Institute and
Mr. John Murray for permission to use three illustrations from the
Imperial Institute series of handbooks to the Commercial Resources of
the Tropics; M. Ed. Leplae, Director-General of Agriculture, Belgium,
for several photos, the blocks of which were kindly supplied by Mr. H.
Hamel Smith, of _Tropical Life_; Messrs. Macmillan and Co. for five
reproductions from C.J.J. van Hall's book on _Cocoa_; and _West Africa_
for four illustrations of the Gold Coast.

The photographs reproduced on pages 2, 23, 39, 47, 49 and 71 are by
Jacobson of Trinidad, on pages 85 and 86 by Underwood & Underwood of
London, and on page 41 by Mrs. Stanhope Lovell of Trinidad.

The industry with which this book deals is changing slowly from an art
to a science. It is in a transition period (it is one of the humours of
any live industry that it is always in a transition period). There are
many indications of scientific progress in cacao cultivation; and now
that, in addition to the experimental and research departments attached
to the principal firms, a Research Association has been formed for the
cocoa and chocolate industry, the increased amount of diffused
scientific knowledge of cocoa and chocolate manufacture should give rise
to interesting developments.

A.W. KNAPP.

Birmingham, _February, 1920._




CONTENTS

                                                                    PAGE
PREFACE                                                                v

INTRODUCTION                                                           1
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